In this integration paper, I am arguing and defending for the spiritual reality of our spiritual co-creatures, angels, demons, and Satan, their activity in our lives, and our responsibility toward the awareness of them in the unseen spiritual world around us, especially as it pertains to discerning the spirits for good or evil. (1John 4:1) This was an important third component of Jesus’ earthly ministry: deliverance. He taught, he healed, and delivered those who were oppressed by the evil one. So why is the church today so ignorant of or dismissive of our spiritual co-creatures? Why is this important for the church to pay attention to?
I. Angels, Created by God
a. What is their purpose?
The Bible is full of references to angels. The Greek word angelos appears in the Septuagint OT about 251 times and the NT in 177 places where they are mentioned (67 times in Revelation alone). While none of these references give comprehensive details about how God created them (Col. 1:16) or their differing manifestations or ontology, we catch glimpses of their nature from their appearances, messages, and assignments. While their main purpose is to defend and praise the holiness of God, they are also ministering spirits (Heb. 1:14) to those who will inherit salvation and are reflectors of God’s glory. Besides being found protecting, providing needs, bringing messages, or encouraging believers, what is interesting is how they also carry out God’s judgment to unbelievers (Matt. 13:39-42 and throughout Revelation). Contrary to the modern day idea about angels, their mystery and that they are just here to help us, “angels do not call attention to themselves but exist to witness to the Word. As angels that point to Christ, as angels of Christ, the 311 references to them in the NT can be read as a reflection of the three-fold work of Jesus: a prophetic, priestly, and royal office.”[i]
Pseudo-Dionysius’ Celestial Heirarchy, Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologica from the Middle Ages, and Karl Barth’s Church Dogmatics are intensive works that have influenced our western understandings of spirituality and the immaterial co-creatures. For Pseudo-Dionysius, his philosophizing about the angels brought understanding to how they are beings of light ministering through a chain of hierarchies. As he explains, “On the hierarchical scales the angels are at the lowest degree of the hierarchy. This is because the higher levels contain all the illumination and power of the lower levels; but the lower do not have the same level of participation with the higher. Therefore the term angel is used because, in a sense, it is the lowest common denominator.”[ii] He goes on to list out the differing titles and roles of angels existing in three main hierarchies as follows: In the first order are “Seraphim: Fire, “Those who burn”, Cherubim: Messengers of knowledge and Wisdom, and then Thrones: Seat of God. In the second order are Dominions: Justice, then Virtues: Courage and Virility, and also Powers: Order and Harmony. In the third order are Principalities: Authority, then Archangels: Unity, and lastly Angels: Revelation, messengers.”[iii] “Angel traditions have influenced not only early views of Jesus’ pre-existence and of his resurrection and exaltation to heaven, but also understandings of Jesus’ incarnate, earthly life.”[iv] For example, with regard to Eph. 2:18, “at Qumran, the association of the earthly community with the heavenly is well attested. The heavenly angels are united with the community on earth and the elect on earth participate in the heavenly liturgy.”[v]
b. What are they like?
While the Son is made much higher than the angels (Heb.1:4), and man was made for a little while lower than the angels (Heb. 2:7), the clarifications given by Pseudo-Dionysius confirm this in his third chapter as “the closer to the source of divine light, the greater the degree of purity and simplicity and resemblance to the source.” In Zechariah 14:5, we see angels as God’s representatives and thus they are called holy ones. “Angels were all created at one time, and there is no propagation among them. They do not die; thus there is no increase or decrease in their numbers. Jesus made it quite plain that they do not marry.”[vi] They are often referred to as hosts. “Hosts is a military term and thus identified angels as members in God’s army. With military kinds of functions, angels were ready for any kind of command by God.”[vii]
c. What are they not like?
According to the book of Hebrews, we find some conclusions in the discussion of angels in chapters one and two that “they are not: made in God’s image, are sons or children of God, kings, saviors or priests, forgivers of sins, living in us, Christ’s substitutes, on the throne, to be worshiped, members of the Godhead, servants for us to order around, all-knowing, just a psychological phenomenon, nor the dwelling place for the incarnated holistic God – Father, Son, Holy Spirit.”[viii]
II. The Unseen Spiritual Dimension
a. Is it elusive? Distant? Transcendent? Unfathomable? In our midst?
In the beginning, Genesis 1:1, God created the heavens and the earth. From our limited perspective, the heavens are referred to what is up and above us in the sky out to the heavens. But, it is much more than what meets the eye. While modern technology like the Hubble space telescope and the disciplines of astronomy and physics have widened our view, we are still coming to terms with how we understand our universe and our existence in it. For example, it used to be thought that the atom was the smallest particle, but new discoveries in quantum physics display characteristics of molecular properties that defy science; things are found to be in two places at once, jumping the boundaries of time and space, or being totally void of mass, like light which has no mass. This goes with the territory of the angels who travel at the speed of light, 186,000 miles per second. As our vision is limited to a small section of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum it makes sense that “concerning the hierarchies that no human being can directly contemplate the ultimate Source. Even Moses did not have a direct vision of God but rather a vision adapted to his level of perception.”[ix]
b. On Earth as it is in Heaven
When our Lord taught us to pray, “thy will be done, on earth as it is in heaven”, are we really landing on that concept or rushing through the rote memorization of speaking the words to get to the end? In the Nicene Creed we confess to believing in “all that is seen and unseen”. The unseen is the realm that the angels dwell, where the limitations of our five senses keep us from accepting the reality of their activity around us. “On the one hand, not to believe in what cannot be seen would result in not accepting the existence of the Holy Spirit or God who is Spirit (John 4:4). In Barth’s Dogmatics, he contends that to deny angels is to deny God.”[x]
III. Spiritual Awareness & Discerning of Demonic Activity
a. What are demons and who is Satan?
“Out of his love, God gave heavenly angels freedom to obey or disobey. Those that rebelled lost the battle, their status with Him, and their residence in heaven.”[xi] (Jude 6, 2Pet. 2:4-9, Rev. 12:7-9) Satan has been deceiving people since Genesis 3:1 when we read about the Serpent and how he deceived Eve and Adam with the bait of twisted truths, distortions, and deceptions. By using reason and influencing thoughts, he appeals to the free will of human wants and desires by turning their desires for God toward themselves, gaining self-centered knowledge to be like God. Mentioned over 200 times in the Bible, he is also known as Lucifer, Light Bearer, Day Star, Son of Dawn (Isa. 14:12). Satan was an anointed guardian cherub of God on His holy mountain (Ezek. 28:14, 16). He pronounces his agenda in Isaiah 14:14 where the original sin of pride caused him to willfully rebel and give into his desire to rise above the heavens and “be like God”. Banished from Heaven, he fell into darkness and took 1/3 of the angels, now demons with him. (Ezek. 28:16-17, Rev. 12:9, Jude 6) Demons or fallen angels are like the good angels in that they too are not bound by time and space, can appear as an angel of light, and have been studying humans since the fall to cause opposition. “The moral turpitude of demons is everywhere in the Scriptures by the harmful way they produce in their victims, deranging them mentally, morally, physically, and spiritually, and by the frequent epithet of “unclean”, which often describes them (Matt. 10:1, Mk. 1:28, Lk. 4:36, Acts 8:7, Rev. 16:13). Fleshly uncleanness and base sensual gratification are the result of demon control of the human personality (Lk. 8:27).[xii]
b. What does Jesus say about angels and demons?
Angels were always a part of Jesus’ earthly life. They herald Jesus’ birth, his temptations with the Devil, are in the tomb at his resurrection, and at his ascension into heaven. When he meets Nathanael in John 1:51, he tells him that he will see heaven opened and the angels of God ascending and descending on the Son of Man. In Matt. 18:1 he begins talking about children having a rightful place in heaven and in v.10 he talks about “their angels in heaven always seeing the face of my Father who is in heaven.” He mentions that the angels don’t even know the hour that the end will come. (Matt. 24:36, Mark 13:32) In the parable of the sower and the weeds (Matt. 13:18-43) Jesus talks about Satan’s devices in stealing the word implanted in us and how the weeds of demons are about us until the day of harvest when the angels come as reapers to throw the evil ones into the fiery furnace. It breaks Jesus’ heart to see his people drawn to the things of Satan and relationship with the devil as we read in John 8:42-44, 12:31, 2 Cor. 4:4, Col. 1:13, 1 John 3:10, 5:19. In Eph. 2:2, James 4:4, 1 John 2:15-17 and 5:19 are examples of people following after the things of this world rather than relationship with God. In our separation we had no hope in being reconciled to God. (Eph. 2:12, 1 John 5:12, and Jude 1:19)
In the gospels we see Jesus directly confronting evil demons who are asking him, “Have you come to destroy us?” (Mark 1:24). The demons knew who he was, “I know who you are, the Holy One of God.” and that they were subject to God’s judgment. Jesus set the example for us by taking control and commanding them to come out of people and forbidding them to tell who he was. The demons also knew who Paul was too as in Acts 19:11-15 they ask, “but who are you?” to the sons of the Jewish priest. Since they were only copying what they heard Paul say and weren’t true believers they were attacked by the evil spirits they were trying to exorcise; it takes faith, not just the words or formulas to overcome the demons. “We need to be cautious in this for the personality of demonic beings should not be understood as being similar to that of humans when they are involved with other humans. They are spirit beings, and they are evil spirit beings, so their personality is founded in evil. Therefore, regardless of how they might appear to be in the personality manifestations, we must never forget that their very essence is evil.”[xiii]
At the cross Christ cut off the power of evil by saying, “It is finished.” (John 19:30) “But Christ’s relationship to the powers lies even deeper, which leads to the important conclusion: Christ has exposed the powers for the non-realities that they are and God’s intention is that they serve him and by extension that they serve believers.”[xiv] I believe this statement is our marching orders. Jesus has freed us from superstition by exposing the truth. But have we been too cautious and perhaps even fearful to call out the evil and the demonic for what it is and send them into a heard of pigs like Jesus did in Mark 5:11-13?
c. Why has the Evangelical Church reduced, minimized, or eliminated the belief in the unseen and spiritual co-creatures?
1 Corinthians 2:14 tells us that the natural person doesn’t accept things of the spirit, that they are folly to him and he isn’t able to understand them because they are spiritually discerned. “With the exception of some like Luther, Swedenborg, and later Wesley, the Protestant ethos began with limiting statements, saying that angels ought not be seen as having any standing of their own as objects of worship, and we ought not indulge in Catholic-like speculations about them.” [xv] And, thanks to the Enlightenment era, reason and rationality became subversive sins where we began to prove God rather than trust in faith. Angels have left a legacy throughout the Bible for us, but the church decides to look the other way, neglecting any encounters with the human experience. While the Annunciation of the angel Gabriel to Mary can be read at Christmas time or the angel at the empty tomb of Jesus can be mentioned in the Easter sermon, many churches have cut off any further witness or discussion. We lose perspective on the holiness of God and reduce Him, His heavenly creation, or those in the spirit realm to how they can serve us rather than how we can serve God. How is it that we believe in the radio waves, how our cell phones work or that you can wirelessly update your phone’s calendar to your computer just by laying it next to it, yet when it comes to the spiritual world people become defensive skeptics or give misinformed spiritual explanations?
Safe spirituality is where you stick with what can be rationalized with your senses. The un-safe zone begins where the unseen world is and cannot be answered intellectually or rationally. Being theologically literate is a big problem in our post-modern culture. With full schedules and the lure of entertainment like TV and computers, the Bible is considered a hard, boring old book, mistakenly thought to have been re-written so much over the centuries that it hardly resembles the original. False assumptions like these are keeping people from their true spiritual heritage. For many women, their spiritual information was what they received from the Oprah show; unfortunately it was laced with a pluralistic mixing of feel-good Christianity, Hinduism and Buddhism with a little Course in Miracles and other New Age ideas to tickle the ears and water down the Truth. According to a Barna report where people were answering nine theological statements, three had to do with spiritual beings. “Six out of ten Americans (59%) reject the existence of Satan, indicating that the devil, or Satan is merely a symbol of evil, yet 54% also contend that a human being can be under the control or the influence of spiritual forces such as demons.”[xvi] Why this disbelief in the Father of Lies, yet believing in his workers? Even more amazing is that “two thirds of American Christians don’t believe that the Holy Spirit is a living force either.”[xvii] “Over the past 20 years we have seen the nation’s theological views slowly become less aligned with the Bible. Christians have increasingly been adopting spiritual views that come from Islam, Wicca, secular humanism, the eastern religions and other sources which unknowingly slips society toward syncretism – a belief system that blindly combines beliefs from many different faith perspectives.”[xviii]
Back in the 1980s, Angels were a “hot property in Hollywood. Angelology moved from the theological texts to the supermarket newspapers. This proliferation of publications about angels in tabloids and devotional books is perhaps symptomatic of our civilization’s rift between knowing and believing.”[xix] While our culture presumes that angels are good, no one seems to take seriously the problem of evil and how Satan was an angel of light. As the great deceiver, he and the other fallen angels make it their job to masquerade as good angels to deceive and turn the people God so loves from their relationship with him. “Since our culture seems to be devoid of classical piety, popular angelologies revel in angel experiences. But for Christians the divine encounter has to do with pneumatology, not angelology. The richness of meeting Jesus by the power of the Holy Spirit empties the soul of all craving for angel visitation.”[xx]
d. Deception is part of Satan’s plan.
The first commandment in Exodus 20:3 is that we should have no other gods before us. Idols and gods are destructive to our relationship with God. That’s why Satan and his demon angels come to separate and distract us from God’s best for us. Some cultures have active religions that are directly involved with the occult. Whether it’s Voodoo in Haiti calling on spirits or Hinduism in India, where the demonic gods and goddesses have names and twist your thoughts so that people believe it is their own selfish words, actions, or thoughts creating the demons. “While people have a natural religious desire. Satan has created pagan religions to provide counterfeit satisfaction of these natural desires. He then binds these religions to the surrounding culture, making it very difficult for someone to receive Christ in the midst of a culture that is spiritually antagonistic to Christianity.”[xxi]
In our western culture it seems as if Satan uses his psychology skills to work with our intellect and individualism to sugar coat our religion and struggle with have half hearted attempts at spiritual disciplines of prayer and Bible reading. The more communal cultures have a better grasp of the spiritual realm and perhaps that is why missionaries have an easier time of evangelization in other countries as they believe and have probably experienced the demonic in the spirit realm. But for the western culture, it is as though Satan has given the church a placebo of going through the motions of good works and we fall hook line and sinker for our cafeteria style, feel-good, what’s-in-it-for-me spirituality. “The demonic world does its best to interfere in the human realm, with the main aim of the evil one which is to tempt, take over, and dominate God’s highest creation. As they’ve found avenues to enter into people’s lives, let us beware of making light of “first degree” demonic power over a person and not dismiss it as mere influence. ANY kind of demonic relationship with a person is indicative of satanic footholds in their life as well as more intense activity to follow.”[xxii] We can’t be like Flip Wilson, the 70’s comedian who’d say, “The devil made me do it!” to make jokes of and excuse away all our sinful failings, but we do have a responsibility to be discerning if we are being influenced for evil purposes. Satan will do his subtle best to attack us mentally, by influencing us through our thoughts, imagination, emotions, and desires. These ideas, compulsions, and feelings can be intensified until we are unable to resist and begin physically manifesting control by a demon. Jesus in Matt. 17:18, Luke 8:35, and Mark 9:22 took control by rebuking the demon and healing those oppressed from the demon spirit or work of Satan.
e. How the New Age has reduced the truth of evil and permeated the culture.
1 Tim. 4:1 tells us that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and the teachings of demons. Most people are unaware of any agenda of the New Age, but isn’t that Satan’s strategy? “Instead of promoting something opposite, his deceptions are subtle, seeking to counterfeit God’s program with something that appears as close to the original as possible only with a shorcut.”[xxiii] “In 1980 New Age guru Marilyn Ferguson wrote The Aquarian Conspiracy. Considered by many to be the New Age Bible, it outlines the purpose and the plan of the New Age Movement. Government, media, the courts, and education are all given specific roles in integrating this so-called non-directed revolution to eliminate Judeo-Christian values. The ultimate goal is one-world government and one-world religion.”[xxiv] Pluralism, syncretism, and the emphasis of tolerance in society today just goes to show how pervasive the intention of the 1980 agenda has been successful. “Religions of the world demonstrate evil foundations and the followers of these religions unwittingly submit to Satan’s intentions, validating practices and customs that are deeply steeped in evil in the name of worshiping the divine, appeasing the supernatural, and placating the spirit and spiritual world. Ritual prostitution, human sacrifices, child molestations, and demonic rituals have all been made acceptable because they are religious. But, their satanic origins, though clouded by ceremony and time, can be clearly seen, for they are not part of what God intended for man.”[xxv]
How is this information about our co-creatures important and useful for the church today? Take a look at Jesus and how the demons reacted to him. They begged and pleaded with him. They knew his power and who he really was, “the Word made flesh who dwelt among us” (John 1:14). We’ve been given that power and authority from Jesus to tread on serpents and scorpions and over all the power of the enemy! (Luke 10:19) According to a Barna report, “seven million teens have encountered an angel, demon, or some other supernatural being, two million teens communicated with a dead person, and two million claim psychic powers. Unfortunately only 28% recall receiving any teaching at their church in the last year that helped to shape their views on the supernatural world and were more likely to engage in dangerous spiritual experimentation.”[xxvi] With the New Age popularity of angels, it may be that many in the church have pushed back from angels and the unseen so that they are not linked to other misdirected New Age practices. Reiki healing is one example of a distortion of Jesus’ healing ministry. It is described as the same way we do laying on of hands, but instead of allowing God or Jesus to flow through you for the healing, the New Age angle of Reiki healing is calling on the generic or impersonal Universal Power and then asking Spirit Guides to help you. That is a scary thought, as we are to be discerning of the spirits! 1 John 4:1 reminds us that every spirit may not be of God. Matthew 7:13-23 says that the gate is narrow and false teaching is a snare. Discernment comes only by spending time in the word to know God’s character. Then if the church is Biblically literate, we can discern the counterfeit lies of the enemy and reclaim the good Biblical spiritual practices.
But rather than retreating, I think as believers we need to redeem what God has created and the authority he’s given us to wield our power over the enemy. What an affront to God and Jesus’ work on the cross to say that we are His followers of His Way and adopted into the Kingdom by his Blood and then be afraid of the firery darts of the enemy, for he who lives in me is greater than he that lives in the world. (1 John 4:4) Our bodies are the Tent of Meeting where the Holy Spirit dwells. The apostle Paul gave us a great suit of armor to put on in Eph. 6 where we can take a stand in the spiritual battle and be fully cognizant of Satan’s tactics and call them for what they are and not give excuses that would please our secular outlook on reality. When we see Jesus healing all those who were oppressed by the devil and how the demons fled, do we take it for reality, passive entertainment or a myth, or that was then, it’s not happening now? We war not against flesh and blood, but against the spiritual forces of evil in heavenly places! (Eph. 6:12) These are are rulers, cosmic powers of evil opposing God’s rule and reign and believers 24/7!
Besides the destructive purposes of Satan, who keeps many unbelievers and believers bound up with sufferings, condemnation, etc., individualism and entitlement are divisive distractions and tactics that cause people to be self-focused rather than God focused. I remember when I was considering life with God and what a mental hurdle it was to think of allowing God to run my life and giving up my free will to do what I wanted for his will. That was a scary thought as though I was giving up control. Yet, the reality of dying to self is the first step in thwarting the plans the enemy has for your destruction. As I discussed earlier, good angels are pointing us away from self-centered individualism to Christ. “The prophetic work of angels in Scripture and tradition turns the Christian eye away from “I, me, and mine”. An alternative understanding of God’s ambassadors for pastors and teachers confronted by today’s popular god-of-the-gaps spirituality is now taking shape as angels-in-the-breach. Biblical angels are not at our beck and call. They fix our attention on God, and that attention is regularly at cross-purposes with our agenda and expectations.”[xxvii] Learning submission to Christ and letting go of your agenda for His agenda is actually very freeing. In fact, as Jesus said to those who were burdened and heavy laden, that his yoke was easy and burden was light. (Matt. 11:30) The yoke of Satan steals, kills, and destroys what you think is freedom to choose, but it is bondage. “In Christ, there is a new creation: a world in which we are enabled to transcend our human finitude and moral weakness, and enabled – like the angels and like Christ – to reflect the Glory of God.”[xxviii]
In my ministry, I am helping others with my products to develop not only their relationship with God, such as with the Prayer Bench, causing spiritual interruptions with the Reflection Ts, but also their understanding of the word with Driving Reflections and Scripture Scarves. Whether it’s reading the Bible verses reflecting on their windshield or the 135 names of God or identity in Christ on their scarf, it is building on our Biblical knowledge and understanding which in turn encourages our faith and belief to be lived out in our life. When I was first showing the scarves in 2011, besides a multitude of “hassles” and “logistical issues”, I had two strong experiences with demonic activity once in my hotel room and another as oppressive whispers trying to convince me that I’d have to pack up my exhibit as I wouldn’t be able to fly home as planned. But, I discerned the voice of the enemy, prayed about the situation, standing on all the names of God on my scarf and who he said he was in his word to me as my provider and way maker. I stood my ground trusting in God, completed my assignment as planned and God provided my way home. The lies of the enemy are to thwart any good I was doing in my Kingdom business and the seeds that were to be planted in others lives. 1Peter 5:8-9 reminds us to be “sober minded: be watchful. Your adversary the devil prowls around like a roaring lion, seeking someone to devour. Resist him, firm in your faith, knowing that the same kinds of suffering are being experienced by your brotherhood throughout the world.” While I’ve had many other spiritual battles since stepping out in this ministry in 2005, I am pressing in with the Holy Spirit to discern how this short study will bring out another way to help others deepen their understanding of heavenly realities, our co-creatures and our calling.
Arnold, Matthew. Overcoming the New Age Movement. Lighthouse Catholic Media, 2011.
Barna, George. “Americans Draw Theological Beliefs from Diverse Points of View.” The Barna Group. October 8, 2008. http://barna.org/barna-update/article/5-barna-update (accessed November 22, 2012).
—. “Most American Christians Do Not Believe that Satan or the Holy Spirit Exist.” The Barna Group. April 10, 2009. http://www.barna.org/faith-spirituality/260 (accessed November 22, 2012).
—. “New Research Explores Teenage Views and Behavior Regarding the Supernatural.” The Barna Group. January 23, 2006. http://barna.org/barna-update/article/5-barna-update/164 (accessed November 22, 2012).
Bloom, Harold. Omens of Millenium. New York: Riverhead, 1996.
Carr, Wesley. Angels and Principalities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Diest, John Van. 10 Things Satan Doesn’t Want You to Know. Sisters, OR: Multnomah, 1998.
Duffield, Guy P. & Van Cleave, Nathaniel M. Foundations of Pentacostal Theology. Los Angeles: L.I.F.E. Bible College, 1983.
Fackre, Gabriel. “Angels Heard and Demons Seen.” Theology Today 51, no. no. 2 (1994): 345-358.
Garrett, Susan. “Jesus and the Angels.” Word & World 29, no. 2 (Spring 2009): 162-169.
Grenz, Stanley. Theology for the Community of God. Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans Publishing Company, 1994.
Jaekle, Charles R. Angels, Their Mission and Message. Harrisburg: Morehouse Publishing, 1995.
Lamar, Mark. Pseudo-Dionysius the Areoagite. June 25, 2001. www.iep.utm.edu/pseudodi/#SH3d (accessed November 30, 2012).
Morey, Robert. Satan’s Devices. Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1993.
Raymo, Chet. Skeptics and True Believers. New York: Walker, 1998.
Thompson, Leonard & Staton, Knofel. Angels – Demons. Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing Company, 2005.
Unger, Merrill F. Zondervan Pictoral Bible Dictionary. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1963.
[i] Gabriel Fackre, “Angels Heard and Demons Seen,” Theology Today 51, no. 2 (1994): p.349
[ii] Mark Lamar, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areoagite, June 25, 2001, www.iep.utm.edu/pseudodi/#SH3d (accessed November 30, 2012), Chapter 5
[iii] Ibid., chapters 6, 7, 8
[iv] Susan Garrett, “Jesus and the Angels,” Word & World 29, no. 2 (Spring 2009): p. 166
[v] Wesley Carr, Angels and Principalities, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), p.95
[vi] Guy P. Duffield & Natahaniel M. Van Cleave, Foundations of Pentecostal Theology (Los Angeles: L.I.F.E. Bible College, 1983), p.467
[vii] Knofel Staton & Leonard Thompson, Angels – Demons, (Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing Company, 2005), p.46
[viii] Ibid., p.55
[ix] Mark Lamar, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areoagite, chapter 4
[x] Knofel Staton & Leonard Thompson, Angels – Demons, p.16
[xi] Ibid., p.40
[xii] Merrill F. Unger, Zondervan Pictoral Bible Dictionary, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1963), p. 212
[xiii] Knofel Staton & Leonard Thompson, Angels – Demons, p. 51
[xiv] Stanley Grenz, Theology for the Community of God, (Grand Rapids: William B. Erdmans Publishing Company, 1994), p. 241
[xv] Charles R. Jaekle, Angels, Their Mission and Message, (Harrisburg: Morehouse Publishing, 1995), p. 49
[xvi] Barna Group, October 8, 2008, http://barna.org/barna-update/article/5-barna-update (accessed November 22, 2012), p. 1 of 5
[xvii] Barna Group, “Most American Christians Do Not Believe that Satan or the Holy Spirit Exist.” The Barna Group. April 10, 2009. http://www.barna.org/faith-spirituality/260 (accessed November 22, 2012), p. 1 of 5
[xviii] Barna Group, October 8, 2008, p. 3 of 5
[xix] Chet Raymo, Skeptics and True Believers, (New York: Walker, 1998), p.265
[xx] Fackre, “Angels Heard and Demons Seen,”, p.354
[xxi] Robert Morey, Satan’s Devices, (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1993), p.181
[xxii] Knofel Staton & Leonard Thompson, Angels – Demons, p. 71
[xxiii] John Van Diest, 10 Things Satan Doesn’t Want You to Know, (Sisters, OR: Multnomah, 1998), p.171
[xxiv] Matthew Arnold, Overcoming the New Age Movement, Lighthouse Catholic Media, (2011), 12:34-12:58. He doesn’t mention business, family, and church, but adding those three would be more complete. These 7-mountains of culture are actively being reclaimed by Christians. Founded in 1975 by Bill Bright of Campus Crusade and Loren Cunningham of YWAM, today spearheaded by Os Hillman which he promotes through his website, www.Reclaim7Mountains.com.
[xxv] Knofel Staton & Leonard Thompson, Angels – Demons, p. 22
[xxvi] Barna Group, “New Research Explores Teenage Views and Behavior Regarding the Supernatural,” The Barna Group, January 23, 2006, http://barna.org/barna-update/article/5-barna-update/164 (accessed November 22, 2012), p. 2 of 5
[xxvii] Fackre, “Angels Heard and Demons Seen,” p. 349
[xxviii] Susan Garrett, “Jesus and the Angels,” p.168